Glass packaging containers have a long history. Later, with the ever-changing industrial technology, plastic packaging containers, composite packaging containers and so on appeared, and the glass packaging containers were in severe competition with the above-mentioned new material containers. However, the glass packaging container has the advantages of crystal clearness, clean appearance, good sealing, and excellent chemical stability.
In particular, due to the fact that the main raw material for glass is quartz sand and various ores, which are extremely rich in the earth's crust, the price is low. Therefore, glass containers have not been excluded or eliminated, but due to various surface coating technologies and lightweight containers. The trend has led to a certain degree of development. Common glass packaging containers are bottles (fine bottles, big bottles, spiral sealed bottles, etc.), cans (for canned foods), cups, and medical ampoules.
Glass packaging waste refers to the function of losing or completing the protection of the original value and use value of the contents, becoming a glass packaging container and material for discarding solid waste; comprehensive treatment of glass packaging waste refers to the disposal of glass packaging waste (ie, Reducing the volume and other uses of glass packaging waste, etc.) and utilization (ie, recycling, processing, etc., from glass packaging waste, or converting it into useable resources and other raw materials activities).
I. Content of glass packaging waste in municipal solid waste Glass packaging container When it loses or completes the function of maintaining the original value and use value of the contents, it becomes the same as other packaging waste, and becomes solid waste and is added to the garbage. Ranks. According to statistics, the United States produces 150 million tons of domestic garbage each year; in recent years, the amount of municipal solid waste in China has reached 150 million tons.
Take Shanghai and Guangzhou as an example, Shanghai has already produced about 10,000 tons of municipal solid waste, and Guangzhou has produced more than 5,000 tons of municipal solid waste. About one-third to one-half of these municipal solid wastes are packaging wastes, of which glass packaging waste is about 5-10%. For example, packaging waste in the United States accounts for about 33% of municipal solid waste, Japan accounts for about 40%, EU countries account for about 30% to 50%, and China accounts for about 30% to 40%.
Second, the significance of glass packaging waste recycling The world's glass recycling situation is that the United States recycled glass is about 30%; France is about 48%; Germany is about 76%; the Netherlands about 77%.
China is a country with a large population, which consumes a lot of glass containers, and where resources and energy are very scarce. China produced about 9 million tons of glass containers in 1999, and its recovery rate was less than 20%, far behind industrially advanced countries. Recycling of glass packaging waste (recycling of some glass containers in the United States about 8 times) or development of new products not only saves mineral resources, reduces energy consumption, but also reduces pollution to the environment (especially water and air).
From the aspect of saving mineral resources, for each ton of broken glass, 700 kg of quartz sand, 150 kg of limestone, and about 160 kg of soda ash can be saved. In total, 1,200 kg of raw materials can be saved; from the perspective of energy saving, melting from glass In the process, if raw materials are used, the chemical reaction is complicated and the heat consumption is high. The system of 1 kg (1500Â°C) glass consumes about 624 calories.
If the glass material is mainly a physical change, the consumption of 1 kg of glass liquid requires only 437 calories; from the time saving point of view, the time required to complete the glass melting with completely powder is about 200 minutes, and 1% of broken glass is used. After the glass can be shortened to 95 minutes; from the reduction of atmospheric pollution, the glass batch material in the high-temperature melting reaction, will produce toxic fumes, such as arsenic compounds, fluorine compounds, lead compounds, cadmium Compounds, etc. In addition, raw materials will generate dust during processing, formulation and feeding.
These will bring pollution to the atmosphere. The melting of broken glass is only a simple physical change process, which can greatly reduce the pollution of the atmosphere. Because of the above-mentioned economic and social benefits of glass packaging waste, the amount of cullet used at home and abroad is gradually increasing. â€œ100%â€ of factories that use cullet have appeared in China. For example, the use of broken glass in glass factories in Beijing and Guangzhou has increased to 50 to 70%.
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